Instructions to Authors

 Quality of Life (Banja Luka) publishes original research papers and reviews and aims to provide a forum for the rapid dissemination of significant novel research in the various disciplines encompassing the Science and Technology of Food, Public health engineering, Sanitary inspection and control, Environmental and Public Health.


 Quality of Life (Banja Luka) publishes original scientific papers, preliminary communications, professional papers, scientific notes and reviews:


Original scientific papers report unpublished results of original research. They must contain significant and original observations to be critically evaluated. Experimental data should be presented in a way that enables reproduction and verification of analyses and deductions on which the conclusions are based.


Preliminary communications include short information on the results of scientific research which require immediate publication.

Scientific notes include reports on shorter but completed research or descriptions of original laboratory techniques (methods, apparatus etc.) and should be concise.


Reviews are original, critical and up-to-date surveys of an area in which, preferably, the author himself/herself is active. They should include recent references from international publications.


Professional papers present new possibilities of improvement within areas of science. The emphasis is on the application of known methods and facts as well as on broadening the knowledge in the particular area. The acquired knowledge is applied to the object of research.


Difference between scientific and professional papers is in their original results and conclusions as well as method used. Although professional paper may be more useful for the application it is not considered as a new scientific contribution.

Papers previously reported at a congress, symposium etc. will be published only if they have not previously been published in proceedings. However, these papers are subject to regular editorial procedure, i.e. evaluation by referees and revision.




Only the manuscripts that conform to the following instructions will be considered:
The manuscript should be submitted in duplicate printouts of 10–15 typewritten pages with 1.5 spacing on one side of the paper (A4 format) accompanied by the identical file by e-mail (preferably Microsoft Word compatible formats). Normal plain font should be used (Times New Roman, font size 12) for both text and figures. (Template QoL)

All papers must be written in English. If English is not the authors’ first language, the manuscript should be given to a native speaker of English for proofreading.

The cover letter should contain full names (with underlined surnames) of all authors, their titles and their signatures confirming that manuscript or part of it was not accepted for publication or being considered for publication or published somewhere else.

The manuscript must contain full names and business addresses of all authors with asterisk next to the name of the corresponding author. Footnote at the bottom of the first page should contain information about the corresponding author (phone, fax and e-mail).

Latin words, phrases and abbreviations, including generic and specific names, should be written in italic. The references should be cited with ordinal numbers of the references in round brackets, with only the number written in italic.

Figures, tables and their legends should be included at the end of the document and their position marked in the text.

The manuscripts should be sent to the following address:
Quality of Life (Banja Luka), Editorial Board,
Pan-European University APEIRON
Pere Krece 13,
78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia and Hercegovina,
phone: +387 51 247 910 and fax: +387 51 247 921,


Potential referees

All papers will be peer reviewed. Authors are asked to submit full contact details, including e-mail addresses, for three potential referees. Referees should be experts in the field of the paper, and not associated with the institution with which the authors are affiliated. The final choice of referees will remain entirely with the Editor.

General format

For clearness the paper should be divided into the following sections: Title Page, Abstract, Key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion (Results and Discussion), Conclusions, Acknowledgements, and References.


Title Page

The title page should be devoted to the title (in caps), the full name(s) of the author(s), and the full postal addresses for all coauthors. In multi-authored texts indicate author affiliation by superscript Arabic numbers placed after author’s name and before the appropriate address. Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing, publication and post-publication. The corresponding author should be identified with an asterisk. A footnote should contain an e-mail address, telephone number and fax number for the corresponding author. Title should be concise and explanatory of the content of the paper.



Abstract (not longer than 250 words) should explain the aim of the paper and include the most relevant results and conclusions.

Directly below the summary, authors should provide the key words.


Key words

Key words should list the main topic of the paper and should not contain more than 6 words or phrases, which should be separated by commas.



It is particularly important that the introductory part be as brief as possible and clear in description of the aims of investigation. Previous relevant work regarding the topic of the manuscript should be included with references.


Materials and Methods

Experimental part should be written clearly and in sufficient detail to allow the work to be repeated. Detailed description is required only for new techniques and procedures, while the known methods must be cited in the references. For chemicals and apparatus used full data should be given including the name, company/manufacturer and country of origin. Statistical analysis should also be included. All unnecessary details should be omitted from the experimental part. Spectra, chromatograms and similar will not be published if their only purpose is to additionally characterize particular compounds.


Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion can be written as two separate or one combined section. Discussion should not be merely the repetition of the obtained results. Combining the results with discussion can simplify the presentation.

Each table and illustration must have all necessary information to be understood independently of the text. The same data should not be reproduced in both diagrams and tables. Whenever, possible formulae and equations are to be written in one line.

All figures (graphs, photographs, diagrams, etc.) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Preferred program for writing figures and tables is Excel. The placement of figures and tables should be indicated. The size of letters and other symbols on diagrams and figures should be such as to allow reduction to column width without loss in legibility. Several figures should be grouped in a plate on one page. Unmounted figures are preferred. Figures and other illustrations should be of good quality, well-contrasted and black and white. If authors insist on color prints, they are requested to cover the additional cost of printing.

Figure legends should be placed at the bottom of each figure, while table headings should appear above the tables. The values on the x- and y-axes must be clearly and precisely defined, decimal numbers must have decimal points, not commas. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript letters or symbols. Experimental error and statistical significance should be stated clearly.



If symbols, letters and abbreviations are used in the text they should be listed with their explanations. SI (Système International) units should be used. Nomenclature of inorganic and organic compounds should conform to the rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).



It should indicate the significant contribution of the manuscript with its applications.
Acknowledgements to colleagues or institutions or companies for donations or any other assistance are recommended to be put at the end of the manuscript, before references, rather than in the text.



All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by authors’ names and should be as full as possible, listing all authors, the full title of articles and journals, publisher and year. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of authors’ names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list.

References should be given in the following form:
References to a journal publication:

Scollan, N., Hocquette, J., Nuernberg, K., Dannenberger, D., Richardson, I. & Moloney, A. (2006). Innovations in beef production systems that enhance the nutritional and health value of beef lipids and their relationship with meat quality. Meat Science, 74(1), 17–33.

Dransfield, E., Martin, J. F., Fisher, A., Nute, G. R., Zygyiannis, D., Stamataris, C., et al. (2000). Home placement testing of lamb conducted in six countries. Journal of Sensory Studies, 15(4), 421–436.

Beltran, E., Pla, R., Yuste, M., & Mor-Mur, M. (2003). Lipid oxidation of pressurized and cooked chicken: Role of sodium chloride and mechanical processing on TBARS and hexanal values. Meat Science, 64(1), 19–25.

Mann, N. (2000). Dietary lean red meat and human evolution. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39, 71–79.

Johansson, J. K. (1989). Determinants and effects of the use of ‘made in’ labels. International Marketing Review, 6, 47–58.

Scott, J. M. (1999). Folate and vitamin B12. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 58, 441–448.

Faustman, C., & Cassens, R. G. (1990). The biochemical basis for discoloration in fresh meat: A review. Journal of Muscle Foods, 1, 217–243.

Ramanathan, R., Konda, M. K. R., Mancini, R. A., & Faustman, C. (2009). Speciesspecific effects of sarcoplasmic extracts on lipid oxidation in vitro. Journal of Food Science, 74, C73–C76.


References to a conference:

Savell, J. W., & Shackelford, S. D. (1992). The significance of tenderness to the meat industry. In Proceedings of the 45th Reciprocal Meat Conference (pp. 43–46). Chicago, IL.

Joseph, P., Suman, S. P., Li, S., Beach, C. M., & Claus, J. R. (2008). Mass spectrometric characterization and thermostability of turkey myoglobin. In Proceedings of 61st annual reciprocal meat conference, Gainesville, FL. Abstract no. 87.
References to a book:
Meilgaard M., Civille G.V., & Carr T.B. (1999). Sensory Evaluation Techniques. (3rd ed.). CRC Press, Printed in USA.

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style. (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan, (Chapter 4).

Morgan, J. B., Cannon, J. B., McKeith, F. K., Meeker, D., & Smith, G. C. (1993). National pork chain quality audit (packerprocessor- distributor). Final Report to the National Pork Producers Council.

USDA. (1997). USDA advises consumers to use a meat thermometer when cooking hamburger. FSIS News and Information Bulletin. FSIS, USDA. Washington, DC.

USDA-FSIS (2005). Federal register notice: HACCP plan reassessment for mechanically tenderized beef products. Federal Register, 70, 30331–30334.

References to a chapter in an edited book:
Gudmundsson, M., & Hafsteinsson, H. (2002). New non-thermal techniques for processing seafood. In H. A. Bremner (Ed.), Safety and quality issues in fish processing (pp. 308–329). Cambridge, England: CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing Ltd.

Olson, J. C. (1977). Price as an informational cue: Effects on product evaluations. In A. G. Woodside, J. N. Sheth, & P. D. Bennett (Eds.), Consumer and industrial buying behavior (pp. 267–286). New York: Elsevier.

Monroe, K. B., & Krishnan, R. (1985). The effect of price on subjective product evaluations. In J. Jacoby & J. C. Olson (Eds.), Perceived quality: How consumers view stores and merchandise (pp. 209–232). Toronto: Lexington.


References to a internet:

World Health Organisation. (1990). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease. Technical Report Series No. 797. Geneva:
WHO. Available at <>.  Accessed 10.06.10

National Bison Association. (2009). <>. Accessed 22.06.10

Bowater, F. J. (2001). Rapid carcass chilling plants compared to conventional systems. International Institute of Refrigeration. <>. Accessed 12.05.10.

Soares, N. F. F. (1998). Bitterness reduction in citrus juice through nariginase immobilized into polymer film. New York: Cornell University. 130 p. (PhD Dissertation).

Citing and listing of web references. As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.(example: Abbott, A., Basurto, M., Daley, C.A., Nader, G. and Larsen, S. (2004). Enhanced nutrient content of grass-fed beef: justification for health benefit label claim. Available at: [Accessed: 11 July, 2007].

Anonymous. (2007). 2006 International Beef Quality Perceptions Survey. Canadian Beef Export Federation [, Accessed 10 October 2007].

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly “Articles in Press” because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in the journal Physics Letters B: doi:10.1016/jphysletb.2003.10.071
When you use the DOI to create URL hyperlinks to documents on the web, they are guaranteed never to change.


In-text citation

In-text citations are citations within the main body of the text and refer to a direct quote or paraphrase. They correspond to a reference in the main reference list. These citations include the surname of the author and date of publication only. Using an example author Philip Arrena, this takes the form:

Arrena (2017) states… Or …(Arrena, 2017).

In-text citations are citations within the main body of the text and refer to a direct quote or paraphrase. They correspond to a reference in the main reference list. These citations include the surname of the author and date of publication only. Using an example author Philip Arrena, this takes the form:

Arrena (2017) states… Or …(Arrena, 2017).


Two Authors:

The surname of both authors is stated with either ‘and’ or an ampersand between. For example:

Ilic and Bjelic (2017) state… Or …(Ilic & Bjelic, 2017).


Three, Four or Five Authors:

For the first cite, all names should be listed:

Christensen, Smith, and Thomson (2017) state… Or …(Christensen, Smith, & Thomson, 2017).

Further cites can be shorted to the first author’s name followed by et al:

Christensen et al (2017) state… Or …(Christensen et al, 2017).


Six or More Authors:

Only the first author’s surname should be stated followed by et al, see the above example.


No Authors:

If the author is unknown, the first few words of the reference should be used. This is usually the title of the source.

If this is the title of a book, periodical, brochure or report, is should be italicised. For example:

(A guide to citation, 2017).

If this is the title of an article, chapter or web page, it should be in quotation marks. For example:

(“APA Citation”, 2017).


Citing Authors With Multiple Works From One Year:

Works should be cited with a, b, c etc following the date. These letters are assigned within the reference list, which is sorted alphabetically by the surname of the first author. For example:

(Muller, 2017a) Or (Muller, 2017b).


Citing Multiple Works in One Parentheses:

If these works are by the same author, the surname is stated once followed by the dates in order chronologically. For instance:

Berger (2007, 2013, 2017) Or (Berger, 2007, 2013, 2017)

If these works are by multiple authors then the references are ordered alphabetically by the first author separated by a semicolon as follows:

(Brunner  & Schmit 2017; Thomas, Coyne, & Davis, 2015).


Citing a Group or Organisation:

For the first cite, the full name of the group must be used. Subsequently this can be shortened. For example:

First cite: (International Citation Association, 2015)

Further Cites: (Citation Association, 2015)


Citing a Secondary Source:

In this situation the original author and date should be stated first followed by ‘as cited in’ followed by the author and date of the secondary source. For example:

Lorde (1980) as cited in Mitchell (2017) Or (Lorde, 1980, as cited in Mitchell, 2017)